Answer the following questions briefly.

Answer the following questions briefly.

(i) What are the controls affecting the climate of India?

(ii) Why does India have a monsoon type of climate?

(iii) Which part of India does experience the highest diurnal range of temperature and why?

(iv) Which winds account for rainfall along the Malabar Coast?

(v) What are jet streams and how do they affect the climate of India?

(vi) Define monsoons. What do you understand by “break” in monsoon?

(vii) Why is the monsoon considered a unifying bond?


(i) The controls affecting the climate of India are: latitude, altitude, pressure and wind system, distance from the sea, ocean currents and relief features.

(ii) The climate of India is strongly influenced by monsoon winds. Hence, it has a monsoon type of climate.

(iii) The north-western part of India comprising the Indian Desert experiences the highest diurnal range of temperature. This is because of the fact that sand (found in ample quantity in this region) gains and loses heat very quickly. As a result of this phenomenon, there is a wide difference between day and night temperatures in this region. The day temperature may rise to 50°C and drop down to near 15°C the same night.

(iv) The south-west monsoon winds are responsible for rainfall along the Malabar Coast.

(v) Jet streams are a narrow belt of high-altitude winds in the troposphere. The sub-tropical westerly jet stream blowing south of the Himalayas are responsible for the western cyclonic disturbances experienced in the north and north-western parts of the country during the winter months. The sub-tropical easterly jet stream blowing over peninsular India is responsible for the tropical cyclones that affect the eastern coastal regions of India during the monsoon as well as during the October to November period.

(vi) Monsoon refers to the complete reversal of winds over a large area leading to a change of seasons.

“Break” in monsoon refers to the wet and dry spells of the monsoon. In other words, the monsoon rains take place for a few days at a time. They are interspersed with rainless intervals.

(vii) Despite variations in temperature conditions across India, a sense of unity is imposed by the monsoon. The seasonal alteration of the wind systems and the associated weather conditions provide a rhythmic cycle of seasons that binds the entire country.

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